Reducing the use of antimicrobial drugs is a concern in modern animal production. As a result, successful health interventions through the use of natural feed additives are currently explored. Vitamin dietary fortification has shown promise as potential to improve health and prevent disease. Vitamin D, for example, has shown effects from this perspective against both mastitis and metritis.
Aside from role of vitamin D in Ca and P homeostasis there are other effects however, such as its immunomodulatory role in cattle innate immune cells and mammary gland. This vitamin intervenes in physiological functions regulated by enzymatic activation and intracellular vitamin D receptors. The form supplemented however is important. Cows fed 25(OH)D3 have shown improved neutrophil function, mastitis reduction, reduced risk of retained placenta, metritis, and increased milk yield compared with cows fed just vitamin D3.