The large expansion of the canola crushing industry that occurred in North America in the last decade has increased the supply of canola meal for the animal feed industry. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Economic Research Service reported canola meal production in 2017-18 in the U.S. was 1.08 million tons.
Faba beans (Vicia faba) is a grain legume that may be considered as dual-purpose feed for protein and starch contents. Due to its high protein (28 – 32% dry matter; DM) and starch contents (40% DM), faba beans can replace both protein meals and cereal grains in dairy cow diets.
During the last 3 weeks of gestation, energy requirements increase due to fetal development and colostrum production. The mammary gland at 4 days postcalving increases demands for glucose by 3 times, amino acids by 2 times, and fatty acids by 3 times when compared to the uterus at 250 days of gestation.
Whey is a coproduct of the cheese or casein manufacture used as an animal feed supplement. Despite its high energy density, its usage is limited in high production cows due to the low protein content in proportion to the salt and lactose content.
Subclinical ketosis is characterized by elevated levels of ketone bodies in blood, and it is one of the most common metabolic disorders in dairy cows during early lactation. Cows with ketosis reduce their dry matter intake and are more prone to develop other diseases such as metritis, and displacement of abomasum.
Antimicrobial resistance continues being a global concern for the World Health Organization because threatens the effective prevention and treatment of an ever-increasing range of infections caused by bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi. In this publication, Dr. Garcia- Fernandez discusses in depth the origin, evolution, and strategies to combat the problem of resistance in the animal industry.
The most recent nitrogenous formulation systems for dairy cows are based on the concepts of digestible protein in the intestine and the contribution of amino acids to the small intestine of ruminants
Lactating cows at peak lactation can require up to 18% crude protein on a dry matter (DM) basis in their diet. The protein portion of a diet accounts for the largest cost in a lactating cow’s ration.