Sugar beet is a temperate climate crop grown mainly for production of sucrose. Beet pulp, the main co-product obtained during the process, is a common ingredient in dairy cow diets. Beet pulp is a good nonforage fiber source with high levels of digestible fiber and pectic substances.
The Valencian Community is one of the main producers of rice and citrus in Spain. Rice straw (residue from rice paddy fields) is usually eliminated by controlled burning of crops. On the other hand, residues of citrus fruit pruning are also eliminated by burning or shredding in green and subsequent incorporation into the soil.
Berry fruits contain vitamins (C, E, folic acid) and other biologically active substances such as tannins, saponins, flavonoids, phenolic acids… that may be beneficial for ruminants. These substances can potentially stimulate the microbial metabolism in the rumen and improve fermentation of nutrients.