Folic acid or folate is a B-complex vitamin that works as a donor and acceptor of one‐carbon units. Thus, it is involved in the synthesis of nucleic acids (DNA) and amino acids (methionine). The name folic acid is deduced from folium (leaf in Latin), because this vitamin was originally isolated from spinach leaves.
Aflatoxins are metabolites produced by mold fungi such as Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus under certain conditions. The most abundant aflatoxin, aflatoxin B1, is a potent carcinogen and it is considered the most toxic naturally occurring toxin. After ingestion, aflatoxin B1 is bio-transformed into the secondary metabolite aflatoxin M1 and excreted in milk, urine and feces.
Essentials oils are volatile aromatic compounds with an oily appearance extracted from plant materials typically by steam distillation. Traditionally, they have been used in dairy diets to modify ruminal microflora and alter rumen fermentation. Recent research; however, shows the implication of some essential oils on physiologic functions in the cows…
Methane is the main greenhouse gas generated by ruminants and represents a significant loss of gross energy (2–12%) for the animals. Therefore, mitigating enteric methane emissions from ruminants is beneficial from the point of environmental conservation and energy efficiency.
Silage was defined as the product formed when grass or other material of sufficiently high moisture content, liable to spoilage by aerobic microorganism, is stored aerobiologically. Belgian researchers assessed the potential of four additives to improve fermentability and nutrient composition during the ensiling process of silages.
Synthetic flavors are additives used in the animal feed industry to enhance the smell and taste of feeds. The sense of taste in dairy cattle is well developed. They can recognize the five basic tastes of sweet, bitter, salty, sour, and umami. Therefore, identifying flavor preferences of dairy calves may help to stimulate and improve the consumption of calf starter.