There is a current trend in consumers preference for dairy products obtained from feeding cattle with locally sourced, non-genetically modified crops that can be traced to their origin. As a result, locally produced vegetable proteins in Europe have been partially replacing imported soybean meal.
Fava beans nutrient composition
Legume plant species such as fava beans, have the same nitrogen-fixating properties as soybeans, and yields bordering 3 tons per hectare. Their nutrient content is quite high at approximately 30% protein and 44% starch.
This protein however is almost 80% fermentable in the rumen making necessary the supplementation of bypass protein particularly in high producing dairy cows. Various processing technologies have been used to increase this undegradable protein (bypass) fraction with the most common being heat treatment.
This treatment is quite effective provided temperature, time, and moisture during treatment are maintained within certain parameters. When this processing exceeds the recommended temperature, for example, heat damage occurs which reducers both protein and sugar availabilities to the animal (Maillard reaction).
Most heat-treated raw seeds do not undergo any previous treatment before extrusion. There could be however some treatments that could make the process more effective without excessively damaging the protein.
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