The Valencian Community is one of the main producers of rice and citrus in Spain. Rice straw (residue from rice paddy fields) is usually eliminated by controlled burning of crops. On the other hand, residues of citrus fruit pruning are also eliminated by burning or shredding in green and subsequent incorporation into the soil.
During the last 3 weeks of gestation, energy requirements increase due to fetal development and colostrum production. The mammary gland at 4 days postcalving increases demands for glucose by 3 times, amino acids by 2 times, and fatty acids by 3 times when compared to the uterus at 250 days of gestation.
Since cows are fed via a pelleted feed offered in the robot during milking, feeding cows in box robotic dairies can be more expensive than feeding a total mix ration (TMR) in conventional farms. A recent survey conducted by University of Minnesota researchers evaluated management factors associated with cow performance in robotic dairies.
A poster presented at the 2019 Annual Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association analyzes whether the inclusion of soybean or canola flour in the diet of cows affects their milk production
Dairy cattle and other ruminants are biologically designed to convert forages and other fibrous feeds into high quality products such as meat and milk. Forages are in general the least expensive source of energy for dairy cows. However, the efficiency of converting forages to milk is limited by the digestibility of forage cell walls.