Two cows, portrait

Risk factors for reproductive tract disease in cows

Lucas Pantaleon

Uterine bacterial contamination is common in dairy cattle during the first 2 weeks postpartum. Endometritis causes delayed ovarian activity and prolonged luteal phases, resulting in reduce submission, conception and pregnancy rates and increased culling. Recently the term purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) was adopted because it is more descriptive and covers a range of conditions: endometritis, vaginitis and cervicitis.

Ultrasonographic scoring systems for assessing endometritis are practical and effective in diagnosing clinical and sub-clinical diseases, as well as a good predictor for reproductive outcome. The identification of PVD and presence of endometritis on ultrasonographic examination (UE) are key for diagnosis of reproductive tract disease (RTD) in cows.

Prevalence of reproductive track disease. Are the data accurate?

The incidence of RTD varies widely around the globe, this is due to lack of a clear definition for the disease, lack of diagnostic gold standards and differences in populations and farming systems. Furthermore, many risk factors can play a role in the development of RTD, such as retained fetal membranes (RFM), metritis, dystocia, primiparity and negative energy balance.

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Comparative biochemical profiles of dairy cows with and without purulent vaginal discharge

Lucas Pantaleon

Endometritis is defined as a process that causes superficial endometrial inflammation with the presence or not of purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) between 21- and 49-days post-partum. PVD in cows during the puerperium has a negative affect on milk production and farm profitability. The delayed ovarian activity caused by PVD leads to greater number of day’s open, longer calving interval and lower conception rate.

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Testing non-antibiotic procedures to treat clinical endometritis in dairy cows

Testing non-antibiotic procedures to treat clinical endometritis in dairy cows

Nuria García

Clinical endometritis is defined as purulent or mucopurulent uterine discharge present in the vagina after 21 days postpartum, and it is associated with tissue damage, delayed uterine involution, disruption of endometrial function, and perturbation of ovarian cycles.

The main bacteria associated with clinical endometritis are Escherichia coli, Trueperella pyogenes, Fusobacterium necrophorum, and Prevotella species. Traditionally, intrauterine broad-spectrum antibiotics such as oxytetracycline have been used for treating clinical endometritis. However, this practice increases the risk of antibiotic residue presence in milk after intrauterine infusion, and the emergence of multidrug resistance bacteria.

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