Early lactation is a challenging and stressful period for dairy cows. Several metabolic diseases happen during this period, which is characterized by a negative energy balance and metabolic imbalance.
Reducing the use of antimicrobial drugs is a concern in modern animal production. As a result, successful health interventions through the use of natural feed additives are currently explored. Vitamin dietary fortification has shown promise as potential to improve health and prevent disease.
Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that is synthesized by ruminal bacteria. It is a vital enzyme cofactor involved in several metabolic processes including fat and carbohydrate metabolism, and protein synthesis.
Folic acid or folate is a B-complex vitamin that works as a donor and acceptor of one‐carbon units. Thus, it is involved in the synthesis of nucleic acids (DNA) and amino acids (methionine). The name folic acid is deduced from folium (leaf in Latin), because this vitamin was originally isolated from spinach leaves.