The fate of nitrogen (N) ingested by dairy cows is approximately 34% in milk protein synthesis, 34% eliminated in the urine, 27% in the feces, with only 5% retained to be used in other body processes.
Mixers and total mixed rations (TMRs) are the feed delivery method of choice in modern dairy operations in confinement. Their greatest advantage is that they allow for more even delivery of nutrients, and a steadier rumen fermentation.
Several types of enzymes have been used as silage additives to improve the nutritive value of corn silage. One of them are proteases, which accelerate the fermentation process. The addition of exogenous protease enzymes at corn harvesting can increase starch degradability in the rumen by acting on the prolamin–starch matrix.
Silage was defined as the product formed when grass or other material of sufficiently high moisture content, liable to spoilage by aerobic microorganism, is stored aerobiologically. Belgian researchers assessed the potential of four additives to improve fermentability and nutrient composition during the ensiling process of silages.