In robotic dairies, cows can move through the pen freely or forced. With free cow traffic, cows decide when to enter the robot whereas with forced cow traffic, the producer set one-way traffic toward the robot by one-way gates or a sorting system in which cows are forced..
Extended lactation, the management practice in which the time of first insemination is delayed deliberately, increases calving interval and reduces the proportion of dry cows in the herd. This changes the lactation curve lengthening the descending phase. Therefore, average daily milk production is reduced in cows with extended lactations.
Milk ejection occurs when the myoepithelial cells that surround the mammary alveoli contract and milk is transported through the milk ducts into the cisternal compartment.