Determination of flunixin residues in milk following transdermal administration

Lucas Pantaleon

Flunixin meglumine is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). In the US it is the most commonly prescribed analgesic for cattle. An injectable flunixin formulation has been available in the US market labeled for intravenous treatment of dairy cattle with fever associated with bovine respiratory disease and endotoxic mastitis, and the treatment of endotoxemia associated with coliform mastitis.

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Effects of plasma protein on fresh cow diets

Carlos Moroni & Fernando Diaz

Spray-dried plasma proteins are proteins with high biological value and digestibility, mainly intestinal. They differ from other animal protein sources such as blood meal in that, in addition to not containing the cell fraction, in its manufacturing process the heat treatment is milder (spray procedure), preserving the integrity of the proteins.

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Brown sugar and white sugar

Feeding protected glucose to transition dairy cows

Ishaya U. Gadzama & Fernando Diaz

Dairy cows require glucose during lactation for milk synthesis and maintenance of body tissues. Ruminal degradation of soluble sugars and starches into volatile fatty acids limits the amount of glucose that can be absorbed in the small intestine. This may limit milk synthesis and reproductive performance during the lactation.

Post-ruminal supply of glucose has been proposed as a dietary strategy to improve cow’s productive performance and health status. A study conducted at the Experimental Dairy Farm of the Hunan Institute of Animal and Veterinary Science, Changsha, China investigated the effects of feeding rumen-protected glucose (RPG) on the performance of transition cows.

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Effects of water restrictions on dairy cows

Joaquín Ventura & Fernando Diaz

Water is one of the main nutrients for dairy cows. It contributes to body’s life-sustaining functions such as digestion, nutrients absorption, metabolism, excretion or temperature regulation.

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Inclusion of canola oil in lactating dairy cow diets

Juan Sánchez Duarte & Fernando Díaz

Canola oil is a co-product derived from the solvent extraction of canola seed after it is mechanical crushed. Compared to other vegetable oils, canola oil has the highest concentration of unsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (Table). The addition of fat, such as canola oil, to lactating dairy cow diets is a common practice for increasing dietary energy density and improving milk production. However, high inclusion of canola oil may compromise feed intake, milk fat concentration, and milk production.

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One versus two milkings in low-input dairy production systems

Joaquín Ventura García & Fernando Diaz

After nutrition, labor is the second item in the production costs of a dairy operation. Therefore, it is very important to optimize the work force of a dairy farm in order to improve profitability. Furthermore, milking consumes most of the time in the workers schedule. For this reason, some dairies follow a once-a-day milking strategy in order to improve their employees working conditions, reduce labor cost, expand the pool of available labor or better use their labor resource.

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A herd of Holstein dairy cows grazing in a meadow and a few wind turbines behind

High versus low methane emitter cows

Joaquín Ventura García & Fernando Diaz

Although farming really produces less than 10% of greenhouse gas emissions, several recently published news point at animal production as one of main polluting sectors. Several attempts have been made to reduce dairy cow methane emissions such as adding plant oils containing high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids or seaweed to the diets. These methods based on the addition of dietary supplements have an immediate effect but only work while the supplement is fed. In comparison to feeding strategies, breeding schemes based in methane emissions level need more time to have an impact, but they are cumulative and permanent.

Greenhouse level emissions is a heritable trait in ruminants and measuring methane production reveals considerable variability among individuals fed the same diet. If these differences would be consistent over time and with different diets, animal breeding might be a successful strategy to reduce methane emissions in dairy cows.

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Relationship between serum calcium concentration and acute puerperal metritis in dairy cows

Joaquín Ventura García & Fernando Diaz

Acute puerperal metritis is an acute systemic illness whose main clinical symptoms are fever and signs of toxemia due to an infection of the uterus. Metritis usually occurs during the first 21 days after calving with a peak incidence to occur at day 5 to 7 of lactation. It is characterized by an enlarged uterus and a watery red-brown fluid to viscous off-white purulent uterine discharge, which often has a fetid odor.

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Nitrate supplementation in grazing dairy cows

Ishaya U. Gadzama & Fernando Diaz

Sources of non-protein nitrogen (NPN) such as urea or nitrate are attractive to include in the diet of ruminants because of their low cost relative to vegetable protein. The amount of NPN that can be used in diets however is limited due to their rapid hydrolysis to ammonia in the rumen. This results in a rapid peak in rumen ammonia concentration within the first hour after consumption. In addition, nitrate has been proposed as a feed additive to mitigate enteric methane emissions.

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Understanding right displaced abomasum

Lucas Pantaleon

Right displacement abomasum (DA) and abomasal volvulus (AV) are common problems in dairy cows, despite this there is a lack of consensus about its pathogenesis and the many positions that the abomasum takes on the right side of the cow’s abdominal cavity. Mechanisms of displacement and accumulation of gas in the abomasum remains poorly understood for both left and right DA.

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