Newborn calves are immunodeficient. Colostrum provides them immunity, but it also can be a potential source of pathogen microorganism such as Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Johne’s disease), Mycoplasma spp., Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp.
In robotic dairies, cows can move through the pen freely or forced. With free cow traffic, cows decide when to enter the robot whereas with forced cow traffic, the producer set one-way traffic toward the robot by one-way gates or a sorting system in which cows are forced..
Digestible fiber is an important nutrient in corn silage fed to lactating dairy cows. A recent metanalysis published by Danish researchers reported that across studies (29 experiments and 96 diets)
The use of membrane separation processes allows concentration and fractionation of whey components to obtain valuable ingredients for food and other applications. Manufacturers employ several different membrane separation techniques including ultrafiltration (UF), microfiltration (MF), nanofiltration (NF), and reverse osmosis (RO), to separate out the different components of whey and create whey products to the exact specifications of the end user16.
Ruminal acidosis results from an excessive acid load in the rumen not neutralized by salivary or feed buffers. Cows susceptible to both subacute (SARA) and acute ruminal acidosis change their metabolism, eating behavior, and production performance.
Extended lactation, the management practice in which the time of first insemination is delayed deliberately, increases calving interval and reduces the proportion of dry cows in the herd. This changes the lactation curve lengthening the descending phase. Therefore, average daily milk production is reduced in cows with extended lactations.
One Health is a concept that relates to the intricate relationship between animal, human, and the environment with regards to health and disease.1 The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) sees One Health as a holistic vision
Triticale (× Triticosecale) is a hybrid of wheat (Triticum) and rye (Secale) developed during the late 19th century. This cereal combines the grain quality, productivity, and disease resistance of wheat with the vigor and hardiness of rye.